- One in two sexually active persons will contract an STI by age 25.1
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that nearly 20 million new STIs occur every year in this country, half of those among young people aged 15–24. 2
- Even though young people account for half of new STI cases, a recent survey showed only about 12% were tested for STIs in the last year.3
- CDC estimates that undiagnosed STIs cause 24,000 women to become infertile each year.4
- The total estimated direct cost of STIs annually in the U.S. about $16 billion.5
- Researchers estimate that at least 80% of sexually active people will have an HPV infection at some point in their lifetime.6
- CDC data for 2013–2014 show that about 42% of men and 40% of women aged 18-59 had genital HPV at that time.7
- HPV is responsible for approximately 31,500 cases of cancer each year, including nearly all cases of cervical and anal cancer, about 75% of vaginal cancer, 70% of oropharyngeal cancer, and 69% of vulvar cancer.8
- Within 6 years of the introduction of the first HPV vaccine, there was a 64% decrease in HPV prevalence among females aged 14 to 19 years and a 34% decrease among those aged 20 to 24 years.9
- Herpes infection is common. About 1 in 6 people aged 14-49 in the U.S. has genital herpes.10
- About 1 in 2 people ages 14-49 in the U.S. are infected with HSV-1, which is the typical cause of oral herpes. However, increasing numbers of genital herpes cases are caused by HSV-1.11
- Symptoms of genital herpes often go unnoticed. Most people with genital herpes—close to 90%—don’t know they have the infection. 12
- Globally, researchers estimate that about two-thirds of the population under age 50—more than 3.7 billion people–are infected with HSV-1. Some 140 million people aged 15-49 are infected with genital HSV-1, primarily in the Americas, Europe and Western Pacific.13
Chlamydia, Gonorrhea and Syphilis
- In 2015, rates of the three most common reportable STIs—chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis—reached a record high level. The approximately 1.5 million reported cases of chlamydia represent the highest number of annual cases of any condition ever reported to CDC.2
- While CDC and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommend annual chlamydia screening for sexually active young women ages 15-24, fewer than half of eligible women are screened according the guidelines.14
- Young people ages 15 to 24 years old accounted for 65% of chlamydia diagnoses and 50% of gonorrhea diagnoses in 2015.2
- During 2014–2015, rates of syphilis in both men and women increased in every region of the country.15
- From 2013–2015, the reported gonorrhea infections increased each year. In 2015, a total of 395,216 cases were reported for a rate of 123.9 gonorrhea cases per 100,000 population.15
- In women, undiagnosed and untreated chlamydia and gonorrhea can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease. (PID). According to CDC, 1 in 8 women with a history of PID experience difficulties getting pregnant.16
- CDC estimates that approximately 850,000 persons are living with hepatitis B in the U.S., although other studies have estimated this number to be as high as 2.2 million.17
- The rate of new hepatitis B infections has declined by approximately 82% since 1991, when routine vaccination of children was first recommended.18
- Of the more than 3 million people living with Hepatitis C, 3 out of every 4 are “Baby Boomers,” born from 1945-1965. Baby boomers are five times more likely to have Hepatitis C than other adults.19
- According to CDC, 1.1 million people in the US are living with HIV, and 1 in 7 of them don’t know it.20
- In 2015, 39,513 people were diagnosed with HIV infection in the U.S. in 2015.20
- In 2013, an estimated 42% of Americans living with diagnosed HIV were aged 50 and older, 25% were aged 55 and older, and 6% were aged 65 and older.21
- Pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, involves talking a daily medication to prevent HIV infection in people who are HIV-negative. When taken consistently, PrEP has shown to reduce HIV infection risk by up to 92%.22
- Cates JR, Herndon NL, Schulz S L, Darroch JE. (2004). Our voices, our lives, our futures: Youth and sexually transmitted diseases. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Journalism and Mass Communication.
- CDC Fact Sheet: Reported STDs in the United States 2015 National Data for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis.
- Cuffe, Kendra M. et al. Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing Among Adolescents and Young Adults in the United States Journal of Adolescent Health 2016, 58(5), 512-519
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the United States, 2008
- CDC Fact Sheet: Incidence, Prevalence, and Cost of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the United States.
- Chesson HW, Dunne EF, Hariri S, Markowitz LE. The estimated lifetime probability of acquiring human papillomavirus in the United States. Sex Transm Dis. 2014 Nov;41 (11):660-4.
- Prevalence of HPV in Adults Aged 18–69: United States, 2011–2014. NCHS Data Brief No. 280, April 2017
- Saraiya M, et al. US assessment of HPV types in cancers: implications for current and 9-valent HPV vaccines. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2015;107:djv086.
- Markowitz, LE et al. Prevalence of HPV After Introduction of the Vaccination Program in the United States. Pediatrics Feb 2016, peds.2015-1968.
- Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Among Persons Aged 14-49 Years—United States, 2005-2008. CDC MMWR April 23, 2010 / 59(15);456-459
- Bradley H, Markowitz LE, Gibson T, McQuillan GM. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2—United States, 1999-2010. J Infect Dis. 2014 Feb 1;209(3):325-33.
- Fanfair RN, Zaidi A, Taylor LD, Xu F, Gottlieb S, Markowitz L. Trends in seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 among non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites aged 14 to 49 years-United States, 1988 to 2010. Sex Transm Dis. 2013 Nov;40(11):860-4.
- Looker KJ, Magaret AS, May MT, Turner KME, Vickerman P, Gottlieb SL, et al. (2015) Global and Regional Estimates of Prevalent and Incident Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infections in 2012. PLoS ONE 10(10): e0140765.
- The State of Health Care Quality Report, 2016. The National Committee for Quality Assurance.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2015. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2016.
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)—CDC Fact Sheet
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis—United States, 2015.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis B FAQs for Health Professionals.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis C and Baby Boomers (1945-1965)
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV in the United States: At a Glance.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Among People Aged 40 and Older.
- Grant RM,et al. Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. N Engl J Med. 2010 Dec 30;363(27):2587-99.