Nearly 35,000 HPV-associated cancers occur in the United States each year. These include cancers of the cervix, anus, penis, vagina, vulva, and oropharynx (back of the mouth/throat).
Anal dysplasia and anal cancer:
- Anal cancer is a rare occurrence that has been strongly linked to “high-risk” types of HPV.
- Abnormal cell changes in the anal area (anal dysplasia or anal neoplasia) are more common among individuals who engage in receiving anal sex.
- Anal cancer rates in men who have sex with men are 17-fold higher than in the general population. However, anal dysplasia has also been reported in some people who have a history of severe cervical dysplasia.
- Treatment is available for anal dysplasia and anal cancer.
Head and neck cancer:
- “High risk” HPV is linked with some types of head and neck cancer, primarily oropharyngeal cancers found in the base of the tongue, tonsils, and soft palate.
- Oral sex may be a risk factor for acquiring oral HPV.
- While HPV is very common, oropharyngeal cancers are rare. Most of these cancers are not related to HPV.
Penile Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN) and penile cancer:
- Cancer of the penis is extremely rare in the United States, and HPV is not always the cause.
- There are some cases of cell changes (neoplasia) on the penis, which are caused by “high-risk” types of HPV.
- Most people with a penis do not ever experience symptoms or health risks if they get one or more “high-risk” types of HPV.
- Penile neoplasia can be treated. There is not a cancer screening for the penis because cancer of the penis is extremely rare, and because it is difficult to get a good cell sample from the penis.
Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (VAIN) and vaginal cancer:
- HPV has been linked with some, but not all, cases of cell changes in the vagina and with vaginal cancers.
- Various treatment options are available for vaginal neoplasia, depending on how mild or severe the cell changes are in this area.
- Vaginal cancers are rare.
Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia (VIN) and vulvar cancer:
- HPV has been linked with some, but not all, cases of cell changes on the vulva and with vulvar cancers.
- Various treatment options are available for vulvar neoplasia, depending on how mild or severe the cell changes are in this area.
- Vulvar cancers are rare.