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Nearly 35,000 HPV-associated cancers occur in the United States each year. These include cancers of the cervix, anus, penis, vagina, vulva, and oropharynx (back of the mouth/throat).

Anal dysplasia and anal cancer:

  • Anal cancer is a rare occurrence that has been strongly linked to “high-risk” types of HPV.
  • Abnormal cell changes in the anal area (anal dysplasia or anal neoplasia) are more common among individuals who engage in receiving anal sex.
  • Anal cancer rates in men who have sex with men are 17-fold higher than in the general population. However, anal dysplasia has also been reported in some people who have a history of severe cervical dysplasia.
  • Treatment is available for anal dysplasia and anal cancer.

Head and neck cancer:

  • “High risk” HPV is linked with some types of head and neck cancer, primarily oropharyngeal cancers found in the base of the tongue, tonsils, and soft palate.
  • Oral sex may be a risk factor for acquiring oral HPV.
  • While HPV is very common, oropharyngeal cancers are rare. Most of these cancers are not related to HPV.

Penile Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN) and penile cancer:

  • Cancer of the penis is extremely rare in the United States, and HPV is not always the cause.
  • There are some cases of cell changes (neoplasia) on the penis, which are caused by “high-risk” types of HPV.
  • Most people with a penis do not ever experience symptoms or health risks if they get one or more “high-risk” types of HPV.
  • Penile neoplasia can be treated. There is not a cancer screening for the penis because cancer of the penis is extremely rare, and because it is difficult to get a good cell sample from the penis.

Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (VAIN) and vaginal cancer:

  • HPV has been linked with some, but not all, cases of cell changes in the vagina and with vaginal cancers.
  • Various treatment options are available for vaginal neoplasia, depending on how mild or severe the cell changes are in this area.
  • Vaginal cancers are rare.

Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia (VIN) and vulvar cancer:

  • HPV has been linked with some, but not all, cases of cell changes on the vulva and with vulvar cancers.
  • Various treatment options are available for vulvar neoplasia, depending on how mild or severe the cell changes are in this area.
  • Vulvar cancers are rare.
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