STIs and Oral Sex
Can someone be infected with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) from oral sex? Yes. Many STIs, including chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis, can be spread through oral sex. However, the chances of giving or getting STIs during oral sex can be lowered by using a condom or dental dam.
By definition, oral sex is when someone puts his or her lips, mouth or tongue on a man’s penis, a woman’s genitals (including the clitoris, vulva, and vaginal opening), or the anus of another person. There are different terms used to describe types of oral sex:
- Fellatio is the technical term used to describe oral contact with the penis.
- Cunnilingus describes oral contact with the clitoris, vulva or vaginal opening.
- Anilingus (sometimes called “rimming”) refers to oral contact with the anus.
Oral sex is common among sexually active adults. As with other types of sexual activity, oral sex carries the risk of STIs. It may be possible to get some STIs in the mouth or throat from giving oral sex to a partner with a genital or anal/rectal infection, particularly from giving fellatio.
It also may be possible to get certain STIs on the penis, and possibly the vagina, anus or rectum, from receiving oral sex from a partner with a mouth or throat infection. It’s possible to have an STI in more than one area, for example in the throat and the genitals.
STIs Transmitted Through Oral Sex
Site of initial infection:
- Genital Area
- Urinary Tract
Symptoms: Often there are no symptoms. If there are symptoms, they might include a sore throat, abnormal discharge from the vagina, penis, or rectum, and/or a burning feeling when urinating.
Treatment: Easily cured with antibiotic medicines.
For fellatio (mouth-to-penis contact):
- Cover the penis with a non-lubricated latex condom.
- Use plastic (polyurethane) condoms, if a partner is allergic to latex.
For cunnilingus (mouth-to-vagina contact) and anilingus (mouth to anus contact):
- Use a dental dam, or
- Cut open a condom to make a square, and put it between the mouth and the partner’s vagina or anus.
The surest way to not get a sexually transmitted infection from oral sex is to abstain from vaginal, anal, and oral sex or to be in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and is known to be uninfected. However, many infected persons may be unaware of their infection because STIs often have no symptoms and are unrecognized.
Sexually active individuals should get tested regularly for STIs and HIV, and talk to all partner(s) about STIs. Anyone who thinks that he/she might have an STI should stop having sex and visit a doctor or clinic to get tested. There are free and low-cost options for testing available. It is important to talk openly with a health care provider about any activities that might put a person at risk for an STI, including oral sex.
For an additional resource, check out our fact sheet: Ten Things to Know About Oral Sex.